Solar Panels, Components and Installation: What You Need to Know

The demand for solar panel energy systems has increased throughout the years. Compared to mining and drilling processes, solar energy does not produce byproducts that are harmful to the environment around it.

The sun provides a renewable source of energy that is accessed through natural resources. It is an efficient and effective method of energy collection. It is also budget-friendly, and you can use its power in domestic and factory/ industrial areas.

In this article, we’ll look into how solar panels work, the components required to construct solar panels, the installation process, and the benefits of installing solar panels.

How Solar Panels Work

When the sunrays hit a solar panel, the photovoltaic cells in the panel absorb the energy. These cells have an electrical field that causes the electrical charge to move, creating a flow of electricity.

The energy from the sun is collected through solar panels, the energy itself is known as solar radiation light or electromagnetic radiation, which is emitted by the sun. How much light hits a solar panel varies around the world. Some areas receive excessive sunlight compared to others, affecting how much energy is collected through solar panels.

Parts of the Solar Panel Process

Here are the five key phases through which solar panels collect energy:

1. Harnessing Solar Energy From the Sun

The solar panel contains a layer of silicon cells that absorb sunlight and convert it into electricity. When exposed to light, the silicon cell sets electrons in motion, starting a flow of current. Titled the photovoltaic effect, it means that your panels can continue generating energy as long as the sun is out. But these silicon cells don’t work alone. The solar panel needs a metal frame, glass casing, and different kinds of wiring to maintain a flow of current as well.

2. Absorbs Sunlight

Photovoltaic energy capture begins when the silicone cells absorb much solar radiation, causing the electrons to move and create a current flow. It is termed a direct current that allows the panels to generate electricity.

To measure the electricity created, you can look at its efficiency rating. The higher the efficiency rating through which potential is expanded for more energy production.

3. Converts Energy

After absorbing DC electricity, the solar panel feeds it to a solar inverter. Because the electric grip and the appliances you use run on an alternating current, the inverter has to convert the DC electricity. The two common types of inverters include microinverters and string inverters. Microinverters are smaller components attached under each solar panel. This way, the direct current is converted to alternating current on the spot. A string inverter, on the other hand collects all the electricity in one place before converting it.

4. Powered By Solar

The solar panels then fit into your property’s electric panel, which then distributes electricity to your home. The panel is connected to all your appliances, such as the HVAC system, dishwasher, and electric vehicle.

5. Sent To the Grid

Excess power generated from solar panels is sent to the grid. When you aren’t using the direct current of electricity, it is taken from the grid through alternate current electricity. An electric meter then comes into use as it measures the flow of electricity, saving on the energy bill each month.

How to Install Solar Panels

Here are 8 steps to installing solar panels:

1. Setting up Scaffolding

Ensure your safety before the installation process.

2. Installing Mounts

A mounting system will support the base of solar panels. It would help if you tilted it with an angle between 18 to 36 degrees to get maximum sunlight exposure.

3. Install the Solar Panels

Install the solar panels to the mounting structure with bolts and nuts to ensure it stays stable.

4. Wiring

Install the electrical wiring according to your brand of solar panels. In most cases, their MC4 connectors are used as it is the most suited for every type of solar panel.

5. Installing Solar Inverter

The solar inverter is required to fit into the system and should be kept in a cool place, out of the afternoon sun.

6. Bonding Solar Inverter and Solar Batteries

The solar inverter requires connecting to the solar battery, saving the lack of energy obtained in cloudy weather. It can also lower the system costs.

7. Connection 

To generate electricity, it should be connected to a consumer unit; a generation meter is used to monitor the usage amount being produced. With the use of a computer or other devices, you can check the performance level of your solar panel system.

8. Test Run

Give a test run to your solar panel system to start generating electricity and clean energy.


Solar panel system requires less maintenance due to the lack of moving parts in the system. It should be cleaned a few times yearly due to the accumulation of dirt and other debris. The maintenance is making sure that there are no particles that can halt the absorption process.

It’s better to research how to clean solar panels or hire a professional to maintain them. It is also advised to contact your installer on the warranty condition of your solar panel system.

Avoid spraying cold water onto them when they are hot. It can lead to damage and increase the costs of managing a solar panel system.


Solar power is a renewable energy source that halts the negative effects of carbon generation and allows anyone to harness solar power through solar panel systems, using these in both industrial and housing areas.

The impact is related to the production and supply of the material required to produce solar panels. There are alternatives available for cleaning solar panels as well.